Updating models and their uncertainties
pistemology of the Knowing Subject; Epistemology of the Known Subject; cognitive interaction; cooperative knowledge construction Table of Contents 1. Qualitative Research Features 4.1 Characteristics referring to who and what is studied 4.2 Characteristics referring to method particularities 4.3 Characteristics related to the goal of the inquiry 5. An Example: Representation of Young People Regarded as Linked to Criminal Acts in El Salvador's Written Press 8.1 The inquiry 8.2 The findings 9.
Introduction: the "Way" and the "Ways" of Knowing 2. Final Considerations Acknowledgments Notes References Author Citation 1.
Such paradigms, emerging from established theoretical perspectives, have different ontological, epistemological and, consequently, methodological assumptions; so much so that evolution or reflection produced in one of them is not applicable as such to the others.
Likewise, those paradigms are, more often than not, at the basis of the interpretive models used by the speakers to describe social reality.
 The presence of a basic system of ontological, epistemological, axiological, and methodological assumptions with which researchers approach their research is widely accepted (GUBA & LINCOLN, 1994, p.105; CRESWELL, 1998, pp.74-77; CRESWELL, HANSON, CLARK PLANO & MORALES, 2007, p.238; PATTON, 2002, p.266; SAVAGE, 2006, p.386).
 Having once considered that most of the questions social sciences pose have different answers depending on which paradigm is presupposed (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992a), at present I think the questions recently introduced lend themselves to different answers depending on whether the Epistemology of the Known Subject I propose is accepted or not.
 Unlike epistemology, epistemological reflection does not seek universality; it is neither a "normative" (SCHMIDT, 2001, p.136; MILLER & FREDERICKS, 2002, p.983) nor a finished discipline.
It makes up a persistent, creative activity that is renewed time and again.
Its institutional control operates throughout research development and reaches not only researchers, by determining their options, but also their objects of analysis, by specifying what is "valid" to be known.I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture.Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. Cooperative Knowledge Construction 7.1 Common-union 7.2 The violence of the interpretation code 8.Are the so called qualitative research legitimacy and representation crises not related, then, to the survival of a realistic ontology in the construction of the "other" in scientific texts?How do qualitative researchers sort out the tension between the supposed "objectivity" that so-called scientific knowledge requires and both the participant actors' and their own "subjectivity"?